ﻣﺪل ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎری ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ ادراک ﺧﻄﺮ راﻧﻨﺪﮔﺎن در ﺷﺒیﻪ ﺳﺎز راﻧﻨﺪﮔﻲ ﺑﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از وﻳﮋﮔﻲﻫﺎی رواﻧﻲ راﻧﻨﺪه

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشکده عمران،آب و محیط زیست دانشگاه شهید بهشتی تهران

2 ﻛﺎرﺷﻨﺎس ارﺷﺪ ﻣﻬﻨﺪﺳﻲ راه و ﺗﺮاﺑﺮی، داﻧﺸﮕﺎه ﺧﻮارزﻣﻲ تهران

چکیده

زﻣﻴﻨﻪ و ﻫﺪف :اﻣﺮوزه ﺗﺼﺎدﻓﺎت ﺗﺮاﻓﻴﻜﻲ، ﻳﻜﻲ از مهم ترین عوامل ﻣﺮگ و میر و  آسیب های ﻫﺎی ﺟﺎﻧﻲ و ﻣﺎﻟﻲ در ﺳﺮاﺳﺮ ﺟﻬﺎن ﻫﺴﺘﻨﺪ . از ﻣﻴﺎن ﻋﻮاﻣﻞ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮﮔﺬار در ﺳﻮاﻧﺢ ﺗﺮاﻓﻴﻜﻲ، ﻋﺎﻣﻞ اﻧﺴﺎﻧﻲ به ﻋﻨﻮان ﻣﺆﺛﺮﺗﺮﻳﻦ ﻋﺎﻣﻞ ﺷـﻨﺎﺧﺘﻪ  ﺷـﺪه اﺳـﺖ . ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت ﻧﺸﺎن ﻣﻲ دﻫﺪ ﻛﻪ ادراک ﺻﺤﻴﺢ راﻧﻨﺪﮔﺎن از ﺧﻄﺮات جاده ای، ﻳﻜﻲ از مهم ﺗـﺮﻳﻦ ﻓﺎﻛﺘﻮرﻫـﺎی اﻧﺴـﺎﻧﻲ ﻣﻲﺑﺎﺷﺪ .ﺗﺎ به ﺣﺎل، در ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﺎت ﺑﺴﻴﺎری ﺑـﻪ ﻣﺤﺎﺳـﺒﻪ و ﺑﺮرﺳـﻲ ﺷـﺎﺧﺺ درک ﺧﻄـﺮ راﻧﻨـﺪﮔﺎن ﭘﺮداﺧﺘـﻪ ﺷـﺪه اﺳـﺖ . ﺑﺎ اﻳﻦ وﺟﻮد، ﺗﺎﻛﻨﻮن شاخصی ﺟﺎﻣﻊ در ﺧﺼﻮص ادراک ﺧﻄﺮ راﻧﻨﺪﮔﺎن، آن هﻢ ﺑﺎ تغییر ﺗﻤﺮﻛﺰ ﺑﺮ ﺑﻌﻀـﻲ ﺧﺼﻮﺻـﻴﺎت رﻓﺘﺎری و روان شنسی راﻧﻨﺪﮔﺎن  ﺑﻪ ﻃﻮر ﻫﻢ زﻣﺎن ﺳﺎﺧﺘﻪ ﻧﺸﺪه اﺳﺖ ؛  ﺑﻨﺎﺑﺮاﻳﻦ در اﻳﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﺑﺎ ﻫﺪف ﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﺗﺄﺛﻴﺮ ﺑﺮﺧـﻲ ﺧﺼﻮﺻﻴﺎت ﻓﺮدی، رﻓﺘﺎری و روان  ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ اﻓﺮاد ﺑﺮ ﻣﻴﺰان درک ﺧﻄﺮ راﻧﻨﺪﮔﻲ، ﺷﺎﺧﺼﻲ ﺑﺪون ﺑﻌﺪ ﺑـﻪ ﻋﻨـﻮان ﺷـﺎﺧﺺ درک ﺧﻄﺮ ﺗﻌﺮﻳﻒ و ﻣﺤﺎسبه شده اﺳﺖ .روش: ﺑﻪ منظور اﻧﺪازه گیری ﻣﺆﻟﻔﻪ های زمانی ﺷﺎﺧﺺ ﻣﻮردﻧﻈﺮ، از ﺗﺮﻛﻴﺐ دﺳﺘﮕﺎه شبیه ﺳﺎز راﻧﻨـﺪﮔﻲ و آزﻣـﻮن ﻫـﺎی راﻳﺎﻧﻪ   Flankerو Go-No Go اﺳﺘﻔﺎده شد.رواﺑﻂ ﺑﻴﻦ ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮﻫﺎی ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ و ﺷـﺎﺧﺺ درک ﺧﻄـﺮ راﻧﻨـﺪﮔﺎن ﺑـﺎ اﺳﺘﻔﺎده از ﻣﺪل ﺳﺎزی ﻣﻌﺎدﻻت ﺳﺎﺧﺘﺎری و ﺑﻪ روش ﺣﺪاﻗﻞ ﻣﺠﺬورات ﺟﺰﺋﻲ ﻣﻮردﺑﺮرﺳﻲ ﻗﺮار گرفت. ﻳﺎﻓﺘﻪﻫﺎ : ﺑﺮ اﺳﺎس ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ مدل ﺳﺎزی،ﻣﻬﻢ ترین متغیرهای اثرگذار ﺑﺮ ﺷﺎﺧﺺ  درک خطر راﻧﻨﺪه، ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﻣﻬﺎری، ﺧﻄﺎی ﺗﺸﺨﻴﺺ ﺟﻬﺖ، ﺗﻜﺎﻧﺸﮕﺮی ﺷﻨﺎﺧﺘﻲ، ﺗﻜﺎﻧﺸﮕﺮی ﺣﺮﻛﺘﻲ، ﺗﻜﺎﻧﺸﮕﺮی ﻋﺪم ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ رﻳﺰی،بی اﻋﺘﻨﺎﻳﻲ ﺑﻪ ﻗﺎﻧﻮن و ﺧﻄـﺎ و ﻟﻐﺰش بدست آمدند.ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺑﺎ ﺗﻮﺟﻪ ﺑﻪ بررسی ﻫﺎ،  ﻣﺘﻐﻴﺮﻫﺎی ﺷﺐ و روز، وضعیت ورزش ﻛﺮدن و ﺷﻤﺎرة ﭼﺸﻢ راﻧﻨﺪﮔﺎن، ﺑﺮ ﻣﻴﺰان درک ﺧﻄﺮ آنها از ﻧﻈﺮ آﻣﺎری ﻣﻌﻨﺎدار ﺑﻪ دﺳﺖ آمد.  ﻧﺘﻴﺠﻪﮔﻴﺮی ﻛﻠﻲ : ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ اﻳﻦ ﭘﮋوﻫﺶ و پژوهش ﻫﺎی ﻣﺸﺎﺑﻪ ﻣـﻲ  ﺗﻮاﻧـﺪ ﺑـﻪ ﻋﻨـﻮان اﺑـﺰاری ارزﺷـﻤﻨﺪ در ﺟﻬـﺖ ﺑﻬﺒـﻮد ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣﻪ ﻫﺎی آﻣﻮزﺷﻲ و ﺗﺒﻠﻴﻐﺎﺗﻲ اﻳﻤﻨﻲ ﺗﺮاﻓﻴﻚ، در اﺧﺘﻴﺎر برنامه ریزان  ﺑﺎﺷﺪ . ازﺟﻤﻠﻪ ﺑﺮﻧﺎﻣـﻪ ﻫـﺎی ﻛـﺎرﺑﺮدی ﻛـﻪ ﺑـﺮ اﺳﺎس ﻧﺘﺎﻳﺞ اﻳﻦ ﻣﻄﺎﻟﻌﻪ ﺑﻪ ﻣﻨﻈﻮر ﺑﻬﺒﻮد ﺷﺎﺧﺺ درک از ﺧﻄﺮ راﻧﻨﺪﮔﺎن  می ﺗﻮان ﺑـﻪ آن ﻫـﺎ اﺷـﺎره ﻛـﺮد، آﻣـﻮزش ﻫـﺎی روان ﺷﻨﺎﺳﻲ و رﻓﺘﺎری ﻫﻨﮕﺎم درﻳﺎﻓﺖ ﮔﻮاﻫﻴﻨﺎﻣﻪ و ﺗﻤﺪﻳﺪ آن ﺑﺎ  اولوﻳﺖ اﻧﻮاع ﺗﻜﺎﻧﺸﮕﺮی و ﻛﻨﺘﺮل ﻣﻬﺎری(برای ﺣﺎﻓﻈﻪ)ﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﺷﺪ؛ ﺿﻤﻦ اﻳﻨﻜﻪ می توان ارزﻳﺎﺑﻲ رﻓﺘﺎر راﻧﻨﺪﮔﺎن ﺑﺎ اوﻟﻮﻳﺖ قانون ﻣﺪاری و دﻗﺖ و آموزشﻫﺎی ﻣﺮﺗﺒﻂ ﺑـﺎ آنﻫـﺎ را ﺑﺮای درﻳﺎﻓﺖ اوﻟﻴﻪ و ﻫﻤﭽﻨﻴﻦ ﺗﻤﻳﺪ ﮔﻮاﻫﻴﻨﺎﻣﻪ در ﻧﻈﺮ ﮔﺮﻓﺖ.

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